Key methodologies for constructing large-scale water supply canals in desert
DENG Mingjiang1，WANG Yuanchao2，LI Jiang3，LI Shengyu4，LI Xin5
(1. Xinjiang Ertix River Basin Development Engineering Construction Management Bureau，Urumqi，Xinjiang，830000；2. Xinjiang Ili River Basin Engineering Construction Management Bureau，Urumqi，Xinjiang，830000；3. Xinjiang Planing and Design Administration Bureau of Water Resources and Hydropower，Urumqi，Xinjiang，830000；4. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography，Chinese Academy of Sciences，Urumqi，Xinjiang，830011)
Abstract：Water Supply Project in Northern Xinjiang traverses the Junggar Basin from the north to the south. The open canal is 166.5 km long in the Gurbantungut Desert. In the 1990 s，with respect to the field layout of canal line，sand foundation compaction，canal bed strengthening，wind prevention and sand fixation，and eco-environment protection et al.，the project has developed a series of theoretical research works，technology experiments and engineering practices. After twelve years operation and the dynamic monitoring，the following conclusions are drawn by systematic analysis and evaluation：(1) the mode of the concentrated band arrangement for canal，shelterbelt，and road on platform has the advantages of small disturbance to deserts，high efficiency of mechanized construction and management. The rolling and compaction technologies of sand foundation，canal bed wind-blown sand and sand-gravel cushion solve the technical problem for soil material compaction and the soil material compaction in the canal slopes simultaneously in the desert. (3) Using soil water in the suspension wet sand layer，110 km biological sand control belt combing the mechanical sand fixation and biological sand control has been built. A comprehensive sand prevention technology system including the wind prevention and sand fixation，deceleration of the sand，stepped sand blocking has been constructed. (4) The unblocked ways for the migration paths of wild animals are guaranteed. Using the biological sand control technology system，the artificial vegetation landform has been constructed along both sides of the canal. By improve the drinking water conditions，the biodiversity has been increased. A green ecological engineering corridor has been built in the Gurbantungut Desert.